Working Time Report Germany: Results of the BAuA-Working Time Survey 2021

(in German)

Working time is not only a key factor for safety and health at work, but also largely determines when and how much time we have for recovery, leisure, and private life. Due to changes in the world of work, not least accelerated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, working time arrangements have repeatedly been the focus of political, economic, and social debates. The Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA) established the "Working Time Reporting for Germany" project already in 2015, with the BAuA-Working Time Survey as its centre. The first Working Time Report was published in 2016. In the present Working Time Report Germany, we again take a comprehensive look at the reality of working time in Germany. The year under review, 2021, was marked by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which also affected the working hours of many employees. The data basis for this report is the BAuA Working Time Survey 2021, which surveyed around 20,000 employed persons in Germany who work at least 10 hours per week in their main occupation.

The Working Time Report Germany provides an overview of the prevalence and distribution of various working time dimensions in Germany. One focus is on the duration, location, and flexibility of working hours (part I). Further chapters (part II) examine different employment groups. The focus lies on working from home employees, self-employed persons, employees with multiple employments, employees in basic work, employees of retirement age (silver worker), and essential and frontline workers during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The analyses of the different working time dimensions take various sociodemographic and economic characteristics into account. Furthermore, the simultaneous occurrence of working time demands with other work characteristics, presumably related to working time organization, is also examined. In addition, employee health and satisfaction with their work-life balance are analysed in relation to the dimensions of working time organization. Finally, changes in working time characteristics during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are separately investigated.

The results show that different employee groups are affected differently by working time demands. These are often associated with poorer health and lower satisfaction with work-life balance. Thus, the Working Time Report Germany provides information regarding the importance of various working time dimensions and their impact on employee health. The results are the starting point for further publications presenting in-depth analyses of specific working time dimensions and employee groups or occupations.

Please download the complete report "Working Time Report Germany: Results of the BAuA-Working Time Survey 2021" (in German only).

Bibliographic information

Title:  Arbeitszeitreport Deutschland: Ergebnisse der BAuA-Arbeitszeit­befragung 2021

2. edition.  Dortmund:  Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, 2023. 
ISBN: 978-3-88261-751-1, pages: 220, Project number: F 2507, paper, PDF file, DOI: 10.21934/baua:bericht20230526

Further Publications

Working Time Report Germany - Working from Home

baua: Report brief 2023

More than half of employees were working from home for at least some of their working time during the pandemic. Among employees with office jobs, the proportion was as high as 76 per cent. They were also almost twice as likely to have an agreement to work from home as dependent employees as a …

To the Publication

Working Time Report Germany - Overview of Duration, Location and Flexibility of Working Time

baua: Report brief 2023

On average, German employees work 38.4 hours per week. The majority of employees would like to reduce their working hours, and about half of them want to work fewer than 5 days a week. 39 percent of employees regularly work on weekends. At the same time, the opportunities for many employees to …

To the Publication

BAuA-Working Time Survey 2019: Digital information and communication technologies and their association with work intensity, temporal boundary­lessness and working time flexibility

baua: Report 2022

Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, work with digital information and communication technologies (ICT) was widespread in Germany. However, there is controversy about whether, and if so to what extent, the use of ICT has an influence on work intensity, the risk of temporal boundarylessness and …

To the Publication

Further Information

Research Project

Project numberF 2507 StatusOngoing Project Working time reporting for Germany: scientific analyses on current topics

To the Project

Research ongoing