We provide you with guidelines and important design advice
The requirements for pedestrian areas are manifold. Their geometry must be defined appropriately. Furthermore, they must be slip-proof, illuminated, and have a safety marking, if required.
Below, you will find an overview of the different requirements for pedestrian areas.
There are guidelines for the geometric design of pedestrian areas. They are intended to prevent stumbling, rolling one's ankle, and misstepping and can be found in the report "Vermeiden von Unfällen durch Stolpern, Umknicken und Fehltreten" (Avoiding accidents by stumbling, rolling one's ankle and misstepping).
Flooring materials used in working spaces with a risk of slipping must meet certain requirements. On the one hand, from the requirements classes of the R groups (assessment groups for risk of slipping), as well as the V indices (for the minimum volume of the displacement area of the flooring material for absorbing dirt). The requirements depend on the respective activity performed on the flooring materials. The required R group can be found in the annex 2 to the ASR A1.5/1,2 "Fußböden" (Floors).
Flooring materials for working spaces with a risk of slipping must be selected in accordance with the activity pursuant to annex 2 of the ARS A1.5/1.2 or according to comparable activities. Additionally, flooring materials in adjacent working spaces shall only differ by one R group at most. This is also applicable to the transition from interior to exterior spaces. This requirement may result in significant differences regarding the friction coefficient and therefore in risks of slipping or stumbling. We recommend: for adjacent flooring materials, a friction coefficient differential of 0.2 at most should be complied with. Furthermore, we recommend a friction coefficient differential of 0.2 at most for slow and fast walking, as well as for walking on dry or moist flooring material when selecting a flooring material.
Compliance, specification, or verification of these values are not statutory at the moment. The friction coefficients may be measured by inspection authorities.
Stumbling, slipping, and falling accidents are frequently caused by a lack of or insufficient illumination. Therefore, there are minimum requirements for the illumination that are established in the Workplaces Ordinance (annex 3.4 ArbStättV).
These basic requirements are specified by the ASR regarding illumination:
In this context, there are the following DIN standards, among others:
As well as: Guidances of the accident insurers, for example:
Moreover, there is the guidance of the Commission for Occupational Safety and Safety Engineering of the Federal States LV 41.
The statutory provisions mentioned define minimum light intensities. On the one hand, they are necessary in order to fulfil the visual task at the workstation related to the activity, e.g. 300 to 500 Lux for an office desk. On the other hand, they are basically intended to help identifying and averting hazards in due time.
Dangerous spots can be perceived better by means of appropriate safety signs and markings. Thus, stumbling, falling, and slipping accidents are avoided and reduced, respectively. The use and design of the safety signs/safety markings are described in European guidelines. They can be found in the national standards and technical rules. Furthermore, the requirements regarding the safety and health protection labels in workplaces are described specifically, namely in the technical rules for workplaces ARS A1.3 "Sicherheits- und Gesundheitsschutzkennzeichnung" (Safety and health protection labels).
There are the following warning signs in order to warn against specific hazards such as stumbling, falling, and slipping, and generally against dangerous spots (pursuant to ASR A1.3):
W007 Floor-level obstacle warning:
W011 Slip hazard warning:
W008 Fall hazard warning:
W001 General warning sign:
This sign may only be used in connection with an additional sign specifying the hazard.
Yellow-black stripes must be used when identifying obstacles and dangerous spots (safety marks). This is particularly applicable for permanent obstacles and dangerous spots, for example spots where there is a special risk of falling.
Red-white stripes must be used preferably for temporal obstacles and dangerous spots, for example for building pits. The design of the stripes must be in accordance with the requirements of the ASR A1.3.
The workplace rule ASR A1.5/1,2 "Fußböden" (Floors) requires: Spots of the flooring where the risk of stumbling or slipping cannot be avoided from a technical point of view must be identified pursuant to ASR A1.3. For example, black-yellow stripes must be used for this.
The workplace rule ASR A1.8 "Verkehrswege" (Traffic ways) requires: the identification of dangerous spots on traffic ways with safety marking according to ASR A1.3 if these cannot be eliminated or prevented by taking technical measures. Each equalising step in traffic ways must be identified unambiguously by a yellow-black stripe identification (pursuant to ASR A1.3) or by lights integrated into the step.