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Requirements for pedestrian areas

We provide you with guidelines and important design advice

The requirements for pedestrian areas are manifold. Their geometry must be defined appropriately. Furthermore, they must be slip-proof, illuminated, and have a safety marking, if required.

Below, you will find an overview of the different requirements for pedestrian areas.

Geometric design

There are guidelines for the geometric design of pedestrian areas. They are intended to prevent stumbling, rolling one's ankle, and misstepping and can be found in the report "Vermeiden von Unfällen durch Stolpern, Umknicken und Fehltreten" (Avoiding accidents by stumbling, rolling one's ankle and misstepping).

Slip-proof flooring materials

Flooring materials used in working spaces with a risk of slipping must meet certain requirements. On the one hand, from the requirements classes of the R groups (assessment groups for risk of slipping), as well as the V indices (for the minimum volume of the displacement area of the flooring material for absorbing dirt). The requirements depend on the respective activity performed on the flooring materials. The required R group can be found in the annex 2 to the ASR A1.5/1,2 "Fußböden" (Floors).

Flooring materials for working spaces with a risk of slipping must be selected in accordance with the activity pursuant to annex 2 of the ARS A1.5/1.2 or according to comparable activities. Additionally, flooring materials in adjacent working spaces shall only differ by one R group at most. This is also applicable to the transition from interior to exterior spaces. This requirement may result in significant differences regarding the friction coefficient and therefore in risks of slipping or stumbling. We recommend: for adjacent flooring materials, a friction coefficient differential of 0.2 at most should be complied with. Furthermore, we recommend a friction coefficient differential of 0.2 at most for slow and fast walking, as well as for walking on dry or moist flooring material when selecting a flooring material.

Compliance, specification, or verification of these values are not statutory at the moment. The friction coefficients may be measured by inspection authorities.

Design of the illumination

Stumbling, slipping, and falling accidents are frequently caused by a lack of or insufficient illumination. Therefore, there are minimum requirements for the illumination that are established in the Workplaces Ordinance (annex 3.4 ArbStättV).

These basic requirements are specified by the ASR regarding illumination:

  • ASR A3.4 "Beleuchtung" (Illumination)

In this context, there are the following DIN standards, among others:

  • DIN EN 12665,
  • DIN EN 12464 (parts 1 and 2),
  • DIN EN 1838,
  • DIN 5034,
  • DIN 5035

As well as: Guidances of the accident insurers, for example:

  • BGI/GUV-I 7007
  • BGI/GUV-I 856

Moreover, there is the guidance of the Commission for Occupational Safety and Safety Engineering of the Federal States LV 41.
The statutory provisions mentioned define minimum light intensities. On the one hand, they are necessary in order to fulfil the visual task at the workstation related to the activity, e.g. 300 to 500 Lux for an office desk. On the other hand, they are basically intended to help identifying and averting hazards in due time.

Indoors:

  • 50 lx for traffic spaces and hallways (without landings and steps)
  • 100 lx for traffic spaces and hallways (with landings and steps)
  • 100 lx for stairs, escalators, moving walkways, elevators
  • 100 lx for storage areas

Outdoors:

  • 5 lx for walkways (only for pedestrians)
  • 10 – 20 lx for traffic spaces

Safety signs and markings for the perception of dangerous spots

Dangerous spots can be perceived better by means of appropriate safety signs and markings. Thus, stumbling, falling, and slipping accidents are avoided and reduced, respectively. The use and design of the safety signs/safety markings are described in European guidelines. They can be found in the national standards and technical rules. Furthermore, the requirements regarding the safety and health protection labels in workplaces are described specifically, namely in the technical rules for workplaces ARS A1.3 "Sicherheits- und Gesundheitsschutzkennzeichnung" (Safety and health protection labels).

There are the following warning signs in order to warn against specific hazards such as stumbling, falling, and slipping, and generally against dangerous spots (pursuant to ASR A1.3):

W007 Floor-level obstacle warning:

Warning sign: Floor-level obstacle warning

W011 Slip hazard warning:

Warning sign: Slip hazard warning

W008 Fall hazard warning:

Warning sign: Fall hazard warning

W001 General warning sign:

Warning sign: General warning sign

This sign may only be used in connection with an additional sign specifying the hazard.

Yellow-black stripes:

Yellow-black stripes must be used when identifying obstacles and dangerous spots (safety marks). This is particularly applicable for permanent obstacles and dangerous spots, for example spots where there is a special risk of falling.

Yellow-black stripes:

Yellow-black stripes

Red-white identification:

Red-white stripes must be used preferably for temporal obstacles and dangerous spots, for example for building pits. The design of the stripes must be in accordance with the requirements of the ASR A1.3.

Red-white identification:

Red-white identification

The workplace rule ASR A1.5/1,2 "Fußböden" (Floors) requires: Spots of the flooring where the risk of stumbling or slipping cannot be avoided from a technical point of view must be identified pursuant to ASR A1.3. For example, black-yellow stripes must be used for this.

The workplace rule ASR A1.8 "Verkehrswege" (Traffic ways) requires: the identification of dangerous spots on traffic ways with safety marking according to ASR A1.3 if these cannot be eliminated or prevented by taking technical measures. Each equalising step in traffic ways must be identified unambiguously by a yellow-black stripe identification (pursuant to ASR A1.3) or by lights integrated into the step.