Handling loads over three kilograms
The loads addressed here may include objects, persons or animals. Related forms of lifting, such as lowering and relocating, are included in this type of workload.
Moving a load from one position to a higher position, a position the same height, or a lower position is called lifting, relocating, or lowering. If, on the contrary, a load is held in position in a mainly static manner, this is called holding. If someone transports a load by carrying it along on his/her body, this is called carrying.
In practice, unambiguously delimiting the types of workload from one another sometimes is difficult. Under certain circumstances, it may further make sense to assign the types of workload "whole-body forces", "manual work processes", or "body movement" alternatively. For example, this is the case if the load is additionally changed or transported over longer distances.
During lifting, holding, and carrying, the weight of the load determines the amount of the workload. Additionally, the frequency of the process is the decisive indicator for the workload. The body posture also plays an important role. In addition, there are indicators specific for the type of physical workload, such as positioning accuracy, gripping conditions, or the position of the load in relation to the body. As with all types of workloads, general conditions such as organisation of the work or its execution conditions are important as well. The latter include, for example, spatial conditions, heat, cold, moisture, etc.
Lifting, holding, and carrying mainly strains the lower back and the upper and lower extremities. The energetic workloads may further cause strains for the cardiovascular system. In addition to the indicators mentioned, the likelihood of overstraining is also influenced through the individual preconditions of a person, for example the physical condition and the experience regarding the activity.
© Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health