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Non-linear effects

With a further increased irradiation intensity of up to 1 GW/cm² and a shortening of the pulse duration to microseconds or nanoseconds, the tissue "evaporates", i.e. it is explosively removed (photoablation). If the pulse duration is shortened further to values in the nanoseconds to picoseconds range and the irradiation intensities are simultaneously increased to 1 TW/cm², plasma (i.e. unbound electrons, ions, neutral atoms and molecules) is created. This process is accompanied by an acoustic shockwave that propagates and mechanically destroys the tissue. This is referred to as “photodisruption”.