The objective of the research project was to examine the specific working situations of self-employment without personneland persons holding multiple jobs and the associated demandsand resources.
The results show, that the forl, health-related situation of solo self-employed person results from a complex interaction of demands and resources. Thereby, demands and resources can be attributed to specific and non-specific characteristics of self-employed person without personnel.
In this respect, solo self-employed persons as well as dependent employees are confronted with the attributes of employment which are the result of their specific activity. In addition to this, solo self-employment means a high level of personal responsibility for various factors and therefore the conditions under which they work. Solo self-employment also means a certain degree of autonomy. It is also necessary to remember that people must also be in a position to both use this autonomy and be able to handle the responsibility with which it is associated. Individual attributes determine whether people are able to handle the requirements of self-employment without personnel and can adapt to the new challenges. Moreover, the external conditions in form of the market- and product-related context can also foil the autonomy and/or turn the responsibility into a burden. The context, including the market, the competition and the customers, determines theframe conditions of solo self-employment. A good context enables a high degree of freedom to organise the solo self-employment according to the own needs - an uncertain context in terms of the current and future order situation restrain this freedom.
With regard to persons holding multiple jobs, not only the working conditions of the individual employees are of relevance to their satisfaction and health. Of equal relevance is how the work tasks are carried out, the private and work-related conditions under which they are coordinated, and how they are balanced with theprivate life. In this respect, all levels contribute to the success of the coordination. Therefore, the organisation of multiple job holding is not only based on the specific working conditions, but on the entire possibilities for integration and the obstacles. It is particularly relevantto the health of persons holding multiple jobs that they are able to modify the the multiple job holding, e. g. if there is a lack of reconcilabilityof the work tasks. Among others, this can result from a reduction in the working time or a change in the work-related requirements in one of the jobs A sufficient level of autonomy is necessary to be able to carry out these changes, however. If no change is possible, withdrawal from multiple job holding becomes more likely. It is also necessary to state that among other factors, the financial necessity of carrying out several different jobs can prevent a person from withdrawing from multiple job holding. A lack of compatibility of the work activities and limited possibilities for making changes or leaving jobs therefore means that multiple job holders can face health risks.
Unit 1.2 "Monitoring Working Conditions"